Simulation

Classes

class libmurosim.Atmosphere

Object describing basic atmosphere attributes. Make sure units are consistent with everything else.

Constructor:

Parameters
  • density – Atmospheric density.

  • dynamic_viscosity – Atmospheric dynamic viscosity.

density

atmospheric density

dynamic_viscosity

atmospheric dynamic viscosity

kinematic_viscosity

atmospheric kinematic viscosity

Functions

libmurosim.step(ac_state, aircraft, ac_input_state, inflows, wake_history, atmo, iteration, dt)

Step the simulation by one timestep

Parameters
  • ac_stateAircraftState object holding the current state of the aircraft

  • aircraftAircraft object describing the aircraft geometry

  • ac_input_stateAircraftInputState describing the aircrafts inputs

  • inflows – a list of Inflow objects. One for each rotor

  • wake_historyWakeHistory object containing the current and past wake states

  • atmoAtmosphere object describing ambient atmospheric conditions

  • iteration – the current iteration

  • dt – the current timestep size

libmurosim.basic_aircraft_rotor_dynamics(input_state, dt)

Update all rotor azimuthal positions using a basic dynamics equation with simple forward Euler integration:

\(\frac{\mathrm{d}\psi}{\mathrm{d}t} = \Omega + \dot\Omega \Delta t\)

Parameters
libmurosim.basic_single_rotor_dynamics(input_state, dt)

Updates a single rotor azimuthal positions using a basic dynamics equation with simple forward Euler integration:

\(\frac{\mathrm{d}\psi}{\mathrm{d}t} = \Omega + \dot\Omega \Delta t\)

Parameters
  • input_state – The RotorInputState to update

  • dt – The current time step size

libmurosim.chunk_size()

Returns the chunk size used by the internal data structures

Geometry

Classes

class libmurosim.Aircraft

This class allocates and holds an array of rotors for the aircraft.

Constructor:

Parameters

num_rotors – The number of rotors the aircraft has.

rotors

An array of RotorGeometry, one for each rotor on the aircraft

class libmurosim.RotorGeometry

This class allocates and holds all the blades and other rotor geometric data.

Constructor:

Parameters
  • num_blades – Number of blades the rotor has.

  • origin – The global origin of the rotor. This is where the center of the hub is located.

  • radius – The dimensional radius of the rotor.

  • solidity – The solidity of the rotor.

blades

An array of BladeGeomtery, one for each blade of the rotor

origin

The global origin of the rotor. This is where the center of the hub is located.

radius

The dimensional radius of the rotor.

solidity

The solidity of the rotor.

class libmurosim.BladeGeometry

This class allocates and holds the blade geomteric parameters.

Constructor:

Parameters
  • num_elements – The number of spanwise blade elements.

  • azimuth_offset – The azimuthal offset that this blade has relative to its rotor.

  • average_chord – The average chord of the blade.

average_chord

The dimensional average chord of the blade

azimuth_offset

The azimuthal offset for this blade. This is added to the RotorInputState azimuth.

chunks
class libmurosim.BladeGeometryChunk
C_l_alpha
alpha_0
chord
r
twist

Functions

libmurosim.set_r(bg, data)

Set the spanwise radial stations (non-dimensional) of a BladeGeometry from a linear array.

Parameters
  • bgBladeGeometry object to apply twist to.

  • data – List of radial stations

libmurosim.set_twist(bg, data)

Set the spanwise twist distribution of a BladeGeometry from a linear array.

Parameters
  • bgBladeGeometry object to apply twist to.

  • data – List of twist angles (in radians) for each radial station

libmurosim.set_chord(bg, data)

Set the spanwise chord distribution (non-dimensional) of a BladeGeometry from a linear array.

Parameters
  • bgBladeGeometry object to apply twist to.

  • data – List of chord lengths (non-dimensional) for each radial station

libmurosim.set_C_l_alpha(bg, data)

Set the spanwise lift curve slope (\(C_{L_{\alpha}}\))(per radian) distribution of a BladeGeometry from a linear array.

Parameters
  • bgBladeGeometry object to apply twist to.

  • data – List of lift curve slope (per radians) for each radial station

libmurosim.set_alpha_0(bg, data)

Set the spanwise 0 lift angle (\(\alpha_0\))(in radians) distribution of a BladeGeometry from a linear array.

Parameters
  • bgBladeGeometry object to apply twist to.

  • data – List of \(\alpha_0\) (in radians) for each radial station

libmurosim.set_sweep(bg, data)

Set the spanwise sweep angle (in radians) distribution of a BladeGeometry from a linear array.

Parameters
  • bgBladeGeometry object to apply twist to.

  • data – List of sweep angles (in radians) for each radial station

State

Classes

class libmurosim.AircraftState

This is the top level class that holds the current aerodynamic state of an aircraft.

Constructor:

Parameters
  • num_rotors – The number of rotors on this aircraft

  • num_blades – The number of blades on each rotor

  • num_elements – The requested number of spanwise elements. This will be rounded up to the nearest chunk_size().

  • ac – The Aircraft object associated with this state

rotor_states

An array of RotorState, one for each rotor on the aircraft

class libmurosim.RotorState

This class holds the current aerodynamic state of the rotor.

Attention

This never needs to be explicitly constructed as it will be constructed by AircraftState

C_T

The current thrust coefficient of this rotor

advance_ratio

The current advance ratio of this rotor

axial_advance_ratio

The current axial advance ratio of this rotor

blade_states

An array of BladeState, one for each blade of this rotor

class libmurosim.BladeState

This class holds the current aerodynamic state of the blade.

Attention

This never needs to be explicitly constructed as it will be constructed by AircraftState

C_D

The current drag coefficient contribution from this blade

C_L

The current lift coefficient contribution from this blade

C_Mx

The current x moment coefficient contribution from this blade

C_My

The current y moment coefficient contribution from this blade

C_Q

The current power/torque coefficient contribution from this blade

C_T

The current thrust coefficient contribution from this blade

azimuth

The current azimuthal angle of this blade

chunks
class libmurosim.BladeStateChunk
aoa

A chunk of spanwise sectional angle of attack

dC_D

A chunk of spanwise sectional drag coefficient

dC_L

A chunk of spanwise sectional lift coefficient

dC_Q

A chunk of spanwise sectional power/torque coefficient

dC_T

A chunk of spanwise sectional thrust coefficient

d_gamma

A chunk of spanwise sectional change in circulation

gamma

A chunk of spanwise sectional circulation

Functions

libmurosim.get_dC_T(blade_state)

Extract blade spanwise thrust coefficient to a linear array.

Parameters

blade_state – the BladeState to extract the spanwise \(dC_T\) from

Returns

List of spanwise \(dC_T\) values

libmurosim.get_dC_Q(blade_state)

Extract blade spanwise torque coefficient to a linear array.

Parameters

blade_state – the BladeState to extract the spanwise \(Cd_Q\) from

Returns

List of spanwise \(dC_Q\) values

libmurosim.get_aoa(blade_state)

Extract blade spanwise angle of attack (\({\alpha}\)) to a linear array.

Parameters

blade_state – the BladeState to extract the spanwise \({\alpha}\) from

Returns

List of spanwise \({\alpha}\)

libmurosim.get_gamma(blade_state)

Extract blade spanwise bound circulation (\({\Gamma}\)) to a linear array.

Parameters

blade_state – the BladeState to extract the spanwise \({\Gamma}\) from

Returns

List of spanwise circulation values

libmurosim.get_d_gamma(blade_state)

Extract blade spanwise change in bound circulation (\({\Delta}\)\({\Gamma}\)) to a linear array.

Parameters

blade_state – the BladeState to extract the spanwise \({\Delta}\)\({\Gamma}\) from

Returns

List of spanwise \({\Delta}\)\({\Gamma}\) values

libmurosim.get_dC_L(blade_state)

Extract blade spanwise lift coefficient (\(dC_L\)) to a linear array.

Parameters

blade_state – the BladeState to extract the spanwise \(C_L\) from

Returns

List of spanwise \(dC_L\) values

libmurosim.get_dC_D(blade_state)

Extract blade spanwise drag coefficient (\(dC_D\)) to a linear array.

Parameters

blade_state – the BladeState to extract the spanwise \(C_D\) from

Returns

List of spanwise \(dC_D\) values

Input State

Classes

class libmurosim.AircraftInputState

This class represents the input parameters for the entire aircraft.

Contructor:

Parameters
  • num_rotors – Number of rotors the aircraft has.

  • num_blades – The number of blades each rotor has.

rotor_inputs

An array of RotorInputState, one for each rotor

class libmurosim.RotorInputState
angle_of_attack

Angle of attack of the rotor in radians

angular_accel

The angular acceleration of the rotor in \(mathrm{rad}/s^2\)

angular_velocity

The angular velocity of the rotor in \(mathrm{rad}/s\)

azimuth

The current azimuthal position of the rotor in radians

blade_flapping

An array of blade flapping angle in radians

blade_flapping_rate

An array of blade flapping rates in \(mathrm{rad}/s\)

blade_pitches

An array of blade pitches taken at the 75% spanwise location in radians

freestream_velocity

The dimensional freestream velocity

r_0

The initial non-dimensional tip vortex core size

Functions

Inflow Models

Classes

class libmurosim.HuangPeters

This class instantiates a dynamic inflow model for a single rotor. One of these will be needed for each rotor in the aircraft.

Constructor:

Parameters
  • Mo – The number of odd modes used in the model. 4 typically works well.

  • Me – The number of even modes used in the model. 2 typically works well.

  • rotor – The geometry of the rotor this inflow model is modeling.

  • dt – The timestep of the simulation.

inflow_at()

Computes the rotor induced flow at the requested location.

Parameters
  • x – A chunk of x positions to compute the induced velocity at.

  • y – A chunk of y positions to compute the induced velocity at.

  • z – A chunk of z positions to compute the induced velocity at.

  • x_e – A chunk of x_e positions to compute the induced velocity at. Unused in this inflow model.

  • angle_of_attack – Current angle of attack of the rotor. Unused in this inflow model.

Returns

A chunk of z induced velocities.

update()

Updates the inflow model by one timestep

Parameters
  • C_T – Current rotor thrust coefficient. This does nothing for this inflow model.

  • rotor – The current input state for the rotor.

  • rotor_state – The current rotor state.

  • advance_ratio – The current advance ratio for the rotor.

  • axial_advance_ratio – The current axial advance ratio for the rotor.

  • dt – The current timestep size.

wake_skew()
Returns

The current wake skew angle of the rotor in radians.

Wake

Classes

class libmurosim.WakeHistory

Top level structure for holding the wake and its history

history

An array of Wake s, one for each timestep

class libmurosim.Wake
rotor_wakes

An array of RotorWake

class libmurosim.RotorWake
shed_vortices

An array of ShedVortex

tip_vortices

An array of VortexFilament

class libmurosim.ShedVortex
shed_filaments

An array of VortexFilament

class libmurosim.VortexFilament
chunks

An array of FilamentChunk

class libmurosim.FilamentChunk
gamma

A chunk of circulation strengths along the filament

r_c

A chunk of vortex core size along the filament

v_z

A chunk of induced velocities along the filament

x

A chunk of x positions along the filament

y

A chunk of y positions along the filament

z

A chunk of z positions along the filament

Functions

libmurosim.get_wake_x_component(votex_filament)

Extract filament x position component to a linear array.

Parameters

votex_filament – the VortexFilament to extract the x position component from

Returns

List of filament x positions

libmurosim.get_wake_y_component(votex_filament)

Extract filament y position component to a linear array.

Parameters

votex_filament – the VortexFilament to extract the y position component from

Returns

List of filament y positions

libmurosim.get_wake_z_component(votex_filament)

Extract filament z position component to a linear array.

Parameters

votex_filament – the VortexFilament to extract the z position component from

Returns

List of filament z positions

libmurosim.get_wake_gamma_component(votex_filament)

Extract filament cirulation strength (\(\Gamma\)) to a linear array.

Parameters

votex_filament – the VortexFilament to extract \(\Gamma\) from

Returns

List of filament \(\Gamma\)

libmurosim.get_wake_r_c_component(votex_filament)

Extract filament vortex core size (\(r_c\)) to a linear array.

Parameters

votex_filament – the VortexFilament to extract \(r_c\) from

Returns

List of filament core sizes

libmurosim.get_wake_v_z_component(votex_filament)

Extract induced velocity (\(v_z\)) acting upon the filament to a linear array.

Parameters

votex_filament – the VortexFilament to extract \(v_z\) from

Returns

List of induced velocities

Vtk integration

Classes

class libmurosim.VtkWake

This is an opaque type that holds all the relevant data for writing out a vtu file that holds the wake geometric data as well as various data in a filament.

Attention

Do not instantiate one of these yourself. Instead use build_base_vtu_wake()

class libmurosim.VtkRotor

This is an opaque type that holds all the relevant data for writing out a vtu file that holds the rotor geometric data as well as various spanwise data.

Attention

Do not instantiate one of these yourself. Instead use build_base_vtu_rotor()

Functions

libmurosim.build_base_vtu_rotor(rotor)

Construct and allocate all required data for a VtkRotor.

Parameters

rotor – An instance of a RotorGeometry object

Returns

An initialized VtkRotor object

libmurosim.write_rotor_vtu(base_filename, iteration, rotor_idx, vtk_rotor, rotor_state, rotor_input_state)

Takes the RotorState and RotorInput data, converts it a VtkRotor, and saves it to a vtu file.

The filaname that the data is saved to is constructed by the function such that:

filename = base_filename + "_" + rotor_idx + "_" + iteration + ".vtu"

This ensures that timeseries files can be iterpreted by paraview correctly

Caution

This function has a relatively high runtime cost, use sparingly

Parameters
  • base_filename – The filename to save the data to

  • iteration – The iteration of the saved data

  • rotor_idx – The index of the rotor being saved

  • vtk_rotor – The VtkRotor object to save out

  • rotor_state – The RotorState object containing the rotor state data to save

  • rotor_input – the RotorInput object containing the rotor position data

libmurosim.build_base_vtu_wake(wake)

Construct and allocate all required data for a VtkWake.

Parameters

wake – An instance of a Wake object

Returns

An initialized VtkWake object

libmurosim.write_wake_vtu(base_filename, iteration, vtk_wake, wake)

Takes the Wake data, converts it a VtkWake, and saves it to several vtu files. One file is saved per blade tip vortex filament, and one file is saved per blade shed wake.

The filanames that the data is saved to is constructed by the function such that:

tip_vortex_filename = base_filename + "_" + rotor_idx + "_" + blade_idx + iteration + ".vtu"

shed_wake_filename = base_filename + "_shed_" + rotor_idx + "_" + blade_idx + iteration + ".vtu"

This ensures that timeseries files can be iterpreted by paraview correctly

Caution

This function has a very high runtime cost, use sparingly

Parameters
  • base_filename – The filename to save the data to

  • iteration – The iteration of the saved data

  • vtk_wake – The VtkWake object to save out

  • wake – The Wake object containing the wake data